I’ve been wanting to write this for a while but……. Every time I try, I feel like my head will explode.
Giving it another shot:
When, I got into dog training it was to help troubled dogs. To that end everyone was talking about various ways to enforce what many times is referred to as “Pack Structure”. There are lockdown style procedures that take away literally all freedoms. And more subtle programs like NILIF that even the “fairy farts and rainbows” crowd will condone. But everyone that works with rehab cases, at some point, throws some kind of “Pack Structure”, or “leadership building” stuff at you.
Here’s a list of the ones I use:
Resource Access (NILIF):
– NO resources, aside from water, should be freely accessible. including YOU (or other people) The dog should be “asking” to get affection. If they are being pushy and weren’t “invited” to interact, say “ah ah” and push them off. Only allow it if they stop and wait to be invited. And obviously you can initiate affection when you choose.
– You may slacken this protocol incrementally, as they prove they’re getting better manners.
-Look for opportunities to step into your dogs space and have them yield to your Spatial Pressure. Also look for the opposite…. Draw them to you with body language. NOT A RECALL COMMAND. Just body language/sounds. This should be very subtle and organic. As simple as this practice is, it is PROFOUND in relationship development.
-Use this as much as possible as a style of guidance in the house. you should be guiding them through your home with your body language. You should be able to move them away, and pull them to you without touching them.
Kennel Training For Structure:
-Feed in kennel
-Feel free to put a chew toy, puzzle, or marrow bone in with them. But DON’T turn the Kennel into Chucky Cheez. They should also be developing the ability to relax in them.
– Give freedom incrementally, as they prove their ability to make good decisions on their own.
– DO NOT let any person/animal harass your dog while they are in their Kennel. Use spatial pressure to prevent this. It is a naturally understood pack language. And, all parties need to know you can speak it.
Tether Training For Relationship (Umbilical Cord):
-Try not to use the leash to “steer” them. Try to use the “Yielding/Drawing” protocol If that fails….. Ignore them and let them figure out that staying close to you is the way to turn off the leash pressure.
– Feel Free to calmly handle your dog while tethered. Look for any opportunity to Capture/NameRelaxation.
– Can Sleep tethered to your bed instead of you, if they sleep in your bed, or a bed in your room. Otherwise, they sleep in Kennel.
– If you are not able to adhere to these rules, or just need a break. In the kennel they go. You may put a chew toy, puzzle, or marrow bone in with them. But DON’T turn the Kennel into Chucky Cheez. They should also be developing the ability to relax in them.
– Once they have a “place” command, you may put them in a hold instead of kenneling.
– Give freedom incrementally, as they prove their ability to make good decisions on their own.
Obedience Training for Team Building (Leadership):
– The purpose of this isn’t to make the dog more “obedient”. Or to develop “tricks”. This is to develop team building through learning how to work together to achieve a goal.
– This is done through clarity of communication, by learning how to give and receive information, feedback and consequences.
– After the relationship is developed “embedded” obedience will keep your team running smoothly.
“”That is a great list…… Which one do I use?”
“Woah…… Do I have to do this forever?!?!?!”
For most old school style trainers, the answer is “all of them”, and “for as long as you need to”.
But, the problem is that’s just easier than trying to figure it out for every dog.
The truth is, you only need to use the ones that help.
And, you only have to use them until you don’t need them any more.
Yep….. They’ll say do it for a “while”. And, slowly reduce structure until you notice a backslide, then add more.
But that gets into the thought that forever dogs are little conniving shits, that are just WAITING for the opportunity to seize back their dominance!
I just don’t buy that in most cases.
But… I also work with people daily that have OUT OF CONTROL dogs, with ZERO structure. Hmmm.
So I’m left with these two contradictory paradigms.
Both I can see helping dogs in some cases, and failing them in others.
Both I can see value in but can’t figure out how or when to prescribe them.
Enter Temple Grandin and Suzanne Clothier!
In chapter #2 of her book “Animals Make Us Human”, Temple discussed the difference in “Pack Structure”. She suggests that there are 2 distinct kinds:
“Forced” & “Familial
This is from a handout I give clients that briefly summarizes my understanding of the two:
Dominance Theory was postulated from observing “forced” “non-familial” packs. It is necessary in these situations to maintain harmony.
Wild Canids usually “pack” in mostly familial packs with a few “adopted” members.
In familial packs, when the relationship is intact, there is no need for Dominance Theory. The “parents” behave as “stewards” of the pack. They guide the actions, and development, of the pack.
For dog owners, this means that when introducing a dog to your family, or the pack, you are creating a “forced” pack, and must observe Dominance Theory to some degree. If, you are able to nurture the relationship between ALL members of the pack, it may become a “familial” style pack. This may take a day, or a year. It is strictly up to the strength of the relationship.
This explains the old school procedure of going into “lockdown” when bringing a dog in. And as they get more “trained” these rules can be relaxed.
What is happening, is that the relationship is becoming strong enough to shift from “forced”, to “familial” pack structure.
If the relationships cannot be developed. Or, there are too many unrelated dogs in the pack. Then, you may be stuck with Dominance Theory for long term.
If you get a puppy, or an extremely soft dog in a single dog home, you may be able to follow “familial” structure from the beginning. But, if issues arise…. We may need some structure for a time.
Here’s where Suzanne Clothier comes in….
How to tell which state your in OBJECTIVELY!
I use my version of Suzanne Clothier’s Relationship Assessment Tool.
|Score 1-10. 1 worst- 10 best.||Handler Towards Dog:||Dog Towards Handler:|
Here’s the Clarity-Relationship Handout I give clients explaining each category…. In case it’s not super obvious.
But….. The idea is, do an honest assessment of these categories.
If they score low in a lot of areas, their relationship is not strong enough for a “familial” pack structure.
They are in a “forced” pack setting and will need structure to not just not get into trouble but to DEVELOP the kind of relationship that makes that structure unnecessary.
If the dog (or handler) scores low in an area, use a modality (from above) to help shore up that area.
Like…. If communication is bad: Work on “Obedience Training for Team Building”.
If the connection is bad: Work on “Tether Training for Relationship.
When they score higher, the structure is reduced. When a team has high scores throughout, they will need less structure and naturally fall into the “familial” side of things.
If a dog is scoring low on most of them, or is dangerous….. They get “Lockdown”. That’s ALL the modalities at once.
But, rather than “guess” when it’s time to reduce….. You have a litmus test. Each modality will affect different aspects. When they score well, that modality gets dropped.
Yeah…. If you have a pack of hard dogs, you may never get to full freedom. You may always have to use some structure strategies (hence the Milan “always” type of rules).
Or…. If you have some monster dog that is unable to fully connect. You may always have to have some structure.
I’m not stupid. I get it.
But….. If you can formulate a plan……
You may be able to get closer than you would’ve without one.
That’s my .02$
This is all a working theory! Just thought I’d share in case it helps, or gets someone’s wheels turning.
Finish Forward Dogs presents…
When: Saturday April 26 & Sunday April 27, 2014
Where: 30 Spring Hill Rd. Saco, ME. 04072
Contact: Shannan Nutting, Jay Jack, and Amanda Buckner
Time: 9:00 am – 4:00 pm (Both days, may run slightly longer.)
Fee: $349 per person/dog
*All spaces are on a first-come-first-serve basis, and space is limited.
A system that builds dogs’ social skills to balance their lives…
The key to Pack To Basics is to use the dogs’ naturally strong social behavior to reduce stress and fear; build confidence and language skills, allowing for many common behavior problems to slip away. This is an approach like none other! No punishment and no traditional training is needed to radically improve a dog’s behavior in and out of the home.
Dog aggression? Reduced or resolved in a couple of hours in many cases.
Rambunctiousness? Dogs quickly learn to moderate their own behavior.
Excess energy? Drain your dog of the frustration that causes destructive chewing, anxiety and much more.
Pack to Basics is a comprehensive approach to canine socialization, specifically geared towards dogs with known socialization issues. It includes everything from the initial evaluation to pre-training dogs before they can enter the social arena and preparing the questionable dogs to safely enter the socialization classes.
Pack to Basics is an advanced socialization process that focuses on the dogs that are typically excluded from doggie daycares and other socialization venues. Because of this fact, Pack to Basics offers us an opportunity to help dogs that otherwise might not be able to ever run with other dogs.
Our Pack to Basics classes are revolutionary in their approach and in their results. By allowing dogs with difficulties getting along with other dogs to interact with the right kinds of dogs, they learn not merely to control their aggressive behavior, but to actually enjoy getting along with other dogs.
The two day Pack to Basics workshop is a fun and informative workshop designed to enable dog trainers to share the benefits of Pack to Basics socialization with their clients and their dogs.
Pack to Basics is a unique system for socializing dogs who otherwise might not be allowed to socialize in dog parks and doggie daycares because of anti-social tendencies. We have seen amazing results in hundreds of dogs who have been labeled dog aggressive or dangerous by other dog professionals.
Included in your Pack To Basics Workshop:
• The causes of aggression, the number one reason dogs fight, and how to quickly stop a dog fight. • How to recognize true dog aggression versus bad manners and poor social skills.
• How to evaluate dogs, and their owners prior to the class.
• How to prepare dogs and clients who need some work before socializing.
• How to safely run a class, and how to recognize trouble brewing before it becomes trouble. • When to let things go and when to step in, as well as how to safely step in.
We use a combination of videos, live demonstrations, active socialization sessions, and discussion to reach all students. While the workshop is designed for dog professionals, many dog owners have attended these workshops over the years and all have learned a lot and had a great time. Running Pack to Basics classes is the most valuable thing I offer my clients and it allows me to quickly solve problems other trainers take months or even years to solve.
What is Pack to Basics?
Pack to Basics is the best answer to the socialization question. It is more than merely letting the dogs run together. It begins with proper evaluation of the dog, continues through pre-training dogs who aren’t ready to socialize off leash, and finally it ends with safely socializing dogs who are ready. Workshop attendees can expect two informative days about dog aggression, canine body language, canine socialization. Each day will include lecture, practical work, and video presentations. Every workshop is different because the dogs at each workshop will be different.
Who should attend P2B workshops?
P2B workshops are open to any adults who want to attend. While the workshops are geared for professionals, there is usually one or more dog owner attending who just wants to understand their dog better. The feedback from them is always positive. The program avoids a lot of jargon and instead relies on plain English to communicate ideas so people of all backgrounds can usually follow. However, the material is best-suited for those with dog experience.
Are you a dog trainer?
Learn how to cure your clients problems quicker than ever before possible in a way that will be fun for your owners and their dogs. Bring clients back over, and over again into your business by offering occasional social classes. Your services will be so unique that you should expect more referral business than ever before.
Own or work at a Doggy Daycare?
Learn how to evaluate dogs to determine who is safe to play and who is not. You’ll immediately benefit as you avoid damage to your clients’ dogs. By offering a solution for problematic dogs, you’ll turn unacceptable dogs into your customers…and those people will bring their friends. Also, bring your key staff members. Help them learn dog handling and dog safety rules for dogs at play. Keep your staff and your investment safer.
Are you a pet sitter or dog walker?
Know what to look for when socializing dogs together in your environment or theirs. Make progress with dog behaviors that the average sitter or walker will never understand. You’ll become the “go to” professional in your location.
Can I bring a dog?
Please do! While the workshop could be done without any dogs (we have enough videos to make up the difference) there is a real benefit to having dogs there for practical demonstrations and practice. Any kind of dog will be useful. Some dogs are not suitable for socialization sessions, but they are valuable for the workshop nonetheless because their evaluations are the most important. However, all dogs should be crate trained, attendees will need to provide their own crate.
Can I see video of what this all looks like?
You can see a video at www.packtobasics.com. The focus of the video is a dog named Ringo who was in danger of being euthanized by Southeast Texas Lab Rescue because of his aggressive behavior towards other dogs. After a little less than two weeks we shot the video of Ringo running with a group of other dogs in an 2,000 square foot room.
Who is teaching the workshop?
Chad Mackin will be teaching the workshop. Chad has been training dogs professionally since March of 1993. He developed Pack to Basics after being introduced to Large Field Socialization by Dick Russell. Chad immediately recognized the value in what was happening and set about finding a way to make it work in smaller spaces. Chad brought all his years of experience with difficult and aggressive dogs to the problem and over time Chad developed the program presented in workshops today. Chad is a former President of The International Association of Canine Professionals, as well as the current Director of Training for A+ Dog Obedience in Webster, TX. He has presented on Pack To Basics at the IACP Conference in Hutto TX, and at National K-9 school for dog trainers, as well as private facilities across the US and in Canada.
Please see his website for more information: www.PacktoBasics.com You can also join his on-line community at: www.facebook.com/Pack-to-Basics and www.twitter.com/PackToBasics
Will I receive a Certificate of Attendance?
A Certificate of Attendance will be provided!
When: Saturday April 26th & Sunday April 27th, 2014 Where: 30 Spring Hill Rd., Saco, ME 04072
Time: 9:00 am – 4:00 pm (Both days, may run slightly longer.)
Fee: $349 per person/dog
To Register – Mail Check & April2014 – Socialization – Maine to:
Finish Forward Dogs Inc.
30 Spring Hill Rd.
For more information, please contact Jay Jack:
Phone: (207) 712-5955
Impulse control is one of the most common problems with “problematic dogs”. They see the squirrel/postman/dog/bike, and they are gone. You do not exist to them anymore.
And, the typical training responses are:
A- Correct them big enough so they will listen
B- If you get a high enough value treat, they would listen.
C- If they “respected” you, they would listen.
I’m sure there are more, but, you get the point.
Here are the problems with those.
They work. In the short term, they totally work.But they cost you in different ways.
A- You can correct the shit out of a dog and get it off of something. But….. Unless you have the hardest of the hard dogs, it going to damage the relationship. Never mind that it can damage the dog. But, you see this with old school trainers. Their dogs are obedient as hell, and totally under control. But, their squinting like they’re looking into a spotlight. Flattened dog. Not my idea of a good relationship.
B- You can put a handful of treats in the dogs face and “magnetically” draw them away from whatever got them nuts. Totally works. But you have to have higher value treats than the “distraction”. And you have to have them all the time. And your dog is excited by the food, and so you end up with this hyper, fat, stressed out dog. Not to mention the stressed out parents! There is a very familiar look on their face as the get to the bottom of the life saving bag of cheese.
C- If you live with the dog skillfully in your home. They wait for their food. They yield you space. They listen to you INSIDE. But….. OUTSIDE…… They’re a monster. I don’t think the problem is “respect”. If they didn’t respect you IN the house….. Maybe that argument would have legs. But, I see TONS of people who have angels in the house, and a devil on the streets. Those dogs (generally) don’t lack “respect” they lack impulse control. So, the “respect” camp will say “Rules, Boundaries, and “Limitations”. Obedience to correct behavior. And it sorta works. If they’re “downing” they aren’t chasing. But the problem comes with how you keep them doing these things when they get REALLY excited. And now we’re back to the bigger “Carrots and Sticks” issue of the above A, and B.
Look, I’m not saying that you shouldn’t use food, or corrections. I use both. But you should use them to TEACH….. Not to “manage”. And that’s a HUGE difference.
Nice. Sounds good. So what.
Now that everyone is mad at me……
I’ll tell you what I do.
I teach my dogs to meditate.
Ok, that sounds like hippy shit….. But it’s kind of true.
The “Place” command is meditation for dogs.
The place command, is asking your dog to lay in a bed (or whatever) and stay there until you release them. But, it really goes much deeper than that. For them to be ABLE to stay in their spot, they have to have some self control. They have to be able to stay calm, even through temptations. Now, that is good for your ability to manage them. But, honestly, it’s really just good for them to have that kind of emotional control. Dogs are cute wound up, and playing…. But…. For their own sanity, and health, they really should be ABLE to bring it down for a bit. A long “stay” is a great way to develop those skills. They end up working the same kind of skills as people when we meditate. They learn to relax into this spot, and stop fighting the urge to get up. They learn to have a thought enter their head and try to steal their attention, and let it go without having it break them. They learn to center themselves, and allow distractions to come and then go. No shit, it is meditation for dogs.
Now, I chose “Place” and not a “Down” because I’m way more concerned with geographic location, and emotional state than a particular position. The “Place” command allows them to stand up. Stretch. Circle around. Whatever. Just stay on the bed, and stay cool. Now, they don’t have to stay there forever. But, should be able to stay there for at least 30 min. Then when they can manage that, you go to novel places or add other distractions!
Yes, you food and corrections to shape this skill, but the point is to get to as little food and corrections as possible. Ideally, I want the relationship (Social +R and -P if you want to get fancy) to be the motivator.
The whole point of this isn’t to have the “Place” as a management tool. That’s just a cool side effect.
The point is to help the dog literally increase their ability to SELF REGULATE. It is just like meditation for people.
And, just like meditation for people the benefits will show in areas off the Place/Meditation mats….
That improved impulse control can solve a ton of issues. From separation anxiety, to different types of reactivity.
It allows the dog to be able to display their respect for you, and listen to you ask them to ignore the squirrel/postman/dog/bike.
So, teach your pup, the long “place”. Understand what it’s for.
Teach your dog to meditate.
Hell, you could learn how and do it with them.
Probably wouldn’t kill you to learn to relax a little yourself!
From the Pack To Basics Facebook page:
There is lot of talk about dog rehabilitation these days. We used to just call it dog training, but now we have a fancier word for it; makes it sound more important, difficult and complex I suppose. Nothing wrong with that. But in the end, no matter what methods you are using the approach is ultimately the same. It doesn’t matter if you consider yourself positive based, or balanced. It doesn’t matter if you use clickers or ecollars. If you speak of “extinction” or “punishment” or even “dominance” if your rehab is to work in the long term you have to follow this process (whether you know that’s what you are doing or not). It’s simple (though not always easy) and if you succeed, your rehab will also succeed. If you fail, then ultimately, the rehab will too.
I call it The Golden Road to Rehabilitation and it goes like this: Let the old path become overgrown and difficult to navigate while making the new (preferred) path easier and more accessible.
This may sound trite at first, but this simple expression contains a complex and far-reaching truth. As you will see, we are not merely dealing with things on behavioral level. This approach actually approaches rehabilitation on a physiological level.
This Golden Road requires that we deal with two powerful motivating factors. Most behavior modification approaches focus on the fact that most beings will consistently seek out the path of least resistance. But there is one significant exception to that principle which can throw a serious wrench in that approach. That is when we are dealing with habitual behavior. We will often cling to habits that are inefficient and create more stress and chaos because, well, that’s the nature of habits. Habits become ingrained physiologically in a specific part of our brain and become somewhat involuntary. For example, people will often reach for a light switch in a room and flip it a few times even if they know that the bulb is burnt out. Or in another situation, stand outside an elevator and see how many people press the button when it is already lit. So we cannot rely on simply creating an easier path to the desired goal when the problem is habitual.
This is why the first component of the Golden Road is “Let the old path become overgrown.” You see, this “path” is not merely a metaphor. I am speaking of neurological pathways. As behaviors are reinforced and practiced they change the physical characteristics of the brain. So when we are changing habits we are re-organizing the brain. By denying the use of specific neural pathways we literally make it more difficult to perform the undesired behavior. When I say to let the path become overgrown this is what I mean. We stop traffic down those neural pathways (as much as we can) in order to diminish their usability.
There are a number of ways we can do this, but the consistent thread must be that the dog (at the very least) can no longer engage in the unwanted behavior. That may mean we anything from simply taking away the opportunity, to interrupting each attempt to the application of an appropriate aversive. Whatever the situation calls for and whatever you, as a trainer/handler are comfortable with.
Rarely are aversives necessary in this process, and strong aversives even less so. This is especially true if the first path you steer the dog away from is the path of adrenaline and instability. I point this out because it was solving the adrenaline paradigm that forced me to realize that the two-fold approach is the most effective way to get the job done. The adrenaline pattern isn’t strictly a behavior issue, nor is it an entirely voluntary process for the dog, and it is almost always habitual by the time the dog gets to see me. So we are dealing with a strong, largely involuntary habit that is not about a specific behavior but about a state of mind. To successfully and consistently deal with this issue, requires a good understanding of the Golden Road (if only an intuitive one). As I started to really get into this process the details became more clear and my intuitive understanding of the give and take of these two goals grew. But it wasn’t until I was reading a book about behavior on a neurological level that an intellectual understanding became more clear.
I used to say behavior modification was all about changing habits, “The first thing you have to do to stop smoking is to stop lighting cigarettes. Until you do that, you haven’t begun to quit. And the moment you start lighting them, you’ve stopped quitting.” This approach served me well for years. And I helped a number of dogs and dog owners by simply getting their dogs out of the old habit. The problem with that is that habits take time to break. It worked, but it required a lot of persistent management from my clients. A few moments of lapsed attention could set them back weeks because the dog had no internal motivation to change and plenty of motivation (habit) to revert to the old behavior.
So while the first step is to weaken the power of habitual behavior, making it easier for the dog to choose an easier path, simply weakening the habit will not finish the job in many cases. We need to add another process.
This is where”Do this instead” comes into play. We teach the dog an easier path to gain what he wants. This is a valuable tool, but on it’s own, it can’t always break a habit. Without the first part, it may not do anything at all.
Regardless of how hard we try to slow traffic down those neural pathways or deny the intended reward if we don’t build that new path, we may never get rid of the old habit. Consider the habit of looking at your watch to check the time. I haven’t worn a watch in years, but I still find myself looking at my wrist from time to time especially if I am wearing a wrist band of some sort. This is because habits are not always diminished when the reward is diminished or removed. However, I have a new habit that is more prevalent. I search my pockets for my phone. This is a much more complicated ritual than looking at my wrist, and if both produced equal results looking at my wrist would be superior by far. But the the former doesn’t produce the desired result so it has stopped being the default. However, if I didn’t have the phone, I would likely still be looking at my wrist every time I wanted to know the time.
In this case, we are adjusting the the neural pathways in the brain through consistent use. We are making the desired behavior not merely more desirable, but physiologically easier to perform.
As you can see, the combination of these two valuable principles creates a situation that will ultimately result in the dog choosing a different set of behaviors when faced with old triggers.
The dynamics of the process will vary from dog to dog, case to case, and trainer to trainer, but these two goals are at the heart of all successful rehabilitation regardless of the method or approach used, and regardless of whether the rehabilitator understands them on more than an intuitive level. With a full understanding of the principles of the Golden Road, and the resolve to succeed, there are few problems that are unsolvable.
Apparently, there’s a little “controversy” going on regarding “calming” signals.
Some people call them calming signals, and mean that they are signals that the dog is calming down. As in, they are self soothing, and those are the “tells”.
Other people say that they are “stress” signals. As in, the dog is worried and feeling anxious, and those signs are their “tells”. I’m not talking about ALL “stress signals”. I’m talking about the overlapping ones. Obviously, “Whale Eye” isn’t a “Calming Signal”. The arguments occur in the overlapping ones. “Yawning”, “Shake Offs”, Etc…..
Still, other people say that they are trying to calm other beings down. This is popular socialization circles. They see the dog doing “Shake Offs” and feel like it’s not a “tell” of their feelings, but that they are actually trying to signal the other dog to calm down.
These discussions can get heated.
(Of course….. everything gets heated on the internet)
So…. Who’s right?
They all are.
Dogs use signals for all of those reasons.
Communication evolves. And here is my opinion of how these developed.
Dogs naturally display certain indicators of relaxation. These are the classic indicator type of calming signals. The dog isn’t consciously doing them. They are “tells” of their deepening relaxation.
When this is done enough….. Dogs have trained themselves in conditioned relaxation. As in, they associate those actions with a deepening sense of relaxation, and when they start feeling stressed, they do them in an attempt to induce the sensation associated with it. It’s the same signals designed to self soothe. Same signals….. Drastically different causes.
This happens when they interact with other Dogs. They feel stressed, and so they display those signals. The other dogs see this and (if they aren’t rude little shits) back off a bit. Dogs see the pattern, and realize that those signals can induce relaxation in others. Now they are using them as a communication. Same signals…. Another TOTALLY different cause.
That doesn’t seem helpful.
If they can mean all three things, how are you supposed to know what they mean?
Ah….. The same way that you know your wife is pissed, before she says a word. The same way you know your best friend has a secret they’re just dying to tell you. You get to fucking know your dog!
The same expression can mean they are getting calm, and that calm is leaking out. They’re getting stressed and trying to self regulate. Hell, they can literally be asking you for help with that same signal! As in “Mom….. help! I’m scared of that!”.
Your main job in this relationship (hell in ANY relationship) is to learn their communication. It’s about very subtle differences, and context.
If my dog is laying in front of a fire place and yawns….. He’s probably deepening into “relaxed”. That’s a calming signal.
If I’m having him face some of his issues during training and he yawns. He’s probably self soothing. And that’s a stress signal.
If he’s playing in the yard with dogs, and yawns out of nowhere, and that’s just before play stopped for a second. That was a calming signal as in “hey let’s take it down a notch”.
You have to go through training and life experiences with your dog until you “know” what they’re saying.
So, they’re all right.
Pay attention to your dog, and let them tell you what they mean.
Next time you are on the internet with someone over the meaning of dog signals….
Quickly look over your shoulder and see if your dogs isn’t sitting there just trying to tell you something.
It’s a relationship. Go relate.